Posts Tagged ‘chickens’

Oiling Your Fowl – by David Rogers

February 1, 2010
While winter still lingers on it may be found that some fowl become dry; especially those housed indoors in barns and other protective outbuildings. The feathers, skin, and leg scales will from time to time become drier than what could be considered ideal. If the condition is left untended the skin may even become mildly flaky.

Above: Uropygial papillae.
Usually a fowl will have a single oil duct, or uropygial papilla. It’s through this upright structure that conditioning oil is secreted from the internal gland. Occasionally, a mutantion occurs that causes the doubling of this structure. This can be expressed as two that are partially fused at the base, or two that are fully separate as shown above on this non-molting long-tailed fowl.
The occurrence of this may depend on the region in which you live. Here in the mid-west US the winter air can become dry during the winter months. The drier air seems to rob the birds’ external surfaces of valuable moisture since they can’t produce enough oil from the duct(s) to entirely replenish it.

Normally, oil is secreted from the uropygial papilla. It is then spread over the skin and feathers while the bird preens itself. In drier than normal conditions, the usual amount of oil secretion may not be sufficient.

If dry skin and feathers become an issue, mineral oil may be applied over all external surfaces of the bird except for the eyes. A pair of clean hands, a lent free cloth, or a paper towel may be used to apply the oil. This not only moisturizes the skin, but also prevents the feathers from becoming brittle. This is especially important for long-tailed fowl that do not molt and replace their tail feathers on a yearly basis. Along with clean and dry living quarters, regular oiling can improve feather condition.

The best time to oil a fowl is in the evening just after having gone to roost. This gives the oil a period to soak in over night before the fowl resumes its daily activities during which dust and ground debris may stick to the fresh oil.

Oiling fowl a day before exhibition will also improve its appearance for showing. Giving the oil a day to soak in will result in the appearance of a natural sheen and brighten the pigment of the face, comb, wattles, and legs.

Whenever oiling a fowl, care should be taken that just enough oil is applied for sufficient benefit without matting the feathers together.

Exception: Breeds such as the Silkie should be oiled carefully. The lack of feather barbs will result in them matting much more easily. The skin of the feet and the face and a few drops placed directly onto the uropygial papilla should be the extent of the treatment carried out on these fowl.

Advertisements

Ohiki – “Little Chickens”; Possible Hypochondroplasia in Fowl – by David Rogers

December 1, 2009

Above: This fully grown Ohiki rooster easily fits in just one hand. His feet at the ends of his very short legs may be seen barely beneath his wing. Photo courtesy of Toni-Marie Astin of bantamlongtails.com.

I have chosen the Ohiki 尾曳 as the topic for this month’s article. The Ohiki is a true bantam; it has no large-fowl counter part as may be found in other breeds. It’s an interesting little breed that originated in Japan; specifically the Kochi Prefecture, the same region from which the Onagadori originated.

The two breeds seem to have a close kinship. They share the trait of narrow, ribbon-like feathers and quick feather growth. Some Ohiki have even been known to exhibit the non-molting trait to some degree.

Where the Ohiki differs from the Onagadori is that it has a dominant dwarfism trait that causes it to have a normal sized head, a stocky body, and small limbs – especially the legs, which are set quite far forward on the body. This is a dominant, autosomal trait. As such, the offspring only need to inherit the trait from one parent and, since the gene is not on a sex-link chromosome, either sex of progeny may express it.

This very well describes hypochondroplasia; a form of dwarfism that, unlike achondroplasia – a slightly more distorted dwarfism, results in disproportionate physical features. Since I am not a geneticist, I will refrain from claiming that is precisely what it has; I will only say that the dwarfism in the Ohiki appears to be identical to what is known as hypochondroplasia.

At first glance, it would seem that the little fowl have the same body type as the Chabo 矮鶏, Japanese Bantams. Upon closer inspection and review of breeding results, it becomes apparent that the two have different body types.

The Chabo produces long-legged fowl and short-legged fowl in each hatch. Many have a proportionately shaped body. The Chabo’s short legs are caused by a lethal gene. Offspring may obtain one short leg gene and one long leg gene from the parents. Offspring with such a genetic combination have nearly a 50/50 chance of having short or long legs. However, were an offspring to acquire two copies of the short leg gene, one from each parent, that combination is lethal and the chick dies in the shell on or about the 18th day of incubation. Many Chabo breeders breed a long-legged rooster to a short legged hen. This results in better fertility and fewer in-shell deaths resulting from the lethal genetic combination.

The Ohiki differs from this in that the short leg/dwarfism trait is dominant, they breed true to form, and produce no lethal genetic deaths. Unlike the Chabo, each Ohiki parent may be short legged with no lethal consequences to the offspring.

While they do breed true to form, like nearly any genetic trait, there are variations. Of the two lines from which the Ohiki in the US descend, the Wolfgang Vits line had slightly longer bodies, while the Knut Roeder line had shorter bodies. This demonstrates the diversity that can exist even within the same genetic trait.

In times gone by the Ohiki was known as the “Minohiki-Chabo” 蓑曳矮鶏. It was thought that it was a relative of both the Chabo and the Minohiki 蓑曳, a long-tailed, saddle dragging breed with a game fowl type carriage and head. It was however found to be a relative of neither breed. Instead, it is most closely related to the Onagadori 尾長鶏, Totenko 東天紅, and Shokoku 小国.

The rare little fowl were imported into the US in 2002 by Toni-Marie Astin of bantamlongtails.com. Marc King, of longtail-fowl.com, took it upon himself to gather the stock from various areas of Europe and import them into Switzerland where he prepared the export of hatching eggs for over three years.

Since that time Toni-Marie Astin has been breeding the fowl at her facility, Onagadori South Feather Farm, in Georgia, USA. Mrs. Astin has been making careful selections to improve resistance to pathogens found in the US that differ from those it encountered and was mostly immune to in its previous homeland.

The breed seems to have a threshold with the degree of environmental changes that it will tolerate. At this time, severely cold weather and corn (maize) based feed appears to be where the physiology of the fowl draws the line with adaptations.

It certainly is not a breed for everyone, but for those who don’t mind sheltering it a bit, it makes a wonderful and unusual breed to care for.

My New Chicken Blog

November 12, 2009

I live in northern IN, USA, and raise rare fowl such as the Japanese Tomaru, the Turkish Denizli, and non-molting long-tail fowl at my hobby farm, Megumi Aviary. I don’t have a lot of spare time. So I will update this when I have a spare moment. If anyone is interested, you can visit the forum that my friend Toni-Marie of bantamlongtails.com and I run at onagadori.net

Japanese long tail and long crowing fowl are my main area of interest. By “Japanese long tails”, I do not mean Phoenix. The misnomer that the Phoenix is a Japanese breed has been around a very long time. It’s been spread by misinformed poultry organizations and hatcheries either as a misunderstanding or a clever selling point to make them sound more exotic. The Phoenix is actually a German breed.

Where the misunderstanding comes in is that the Phoenix does contain a small amount of Japanese blood that was brought from Japan to Germany right after WWII by returning military troups.

Those birds were then crossed with Europe’s own breeds; the Leghorn and some game breeds. When it comes right down to it, the Phoenix contains a very small amount of Japanese blood and was developed and standardized in Europe from mostly European blood.

The Japanese breed that the Phoenix is so often confused with is the Onagadori. Unlike the Phoenix, the Onagadori (developed in Tosa, now the Kochi Prefecture) has green and yellow legs and only molts its tail and saddle feathers once every three to four years, or even longer.

The Phoenix was bred strictly to be a blue/slate-legged, molting breed that molts at least every one to two years and never, ever had tail lengths comparable to the Onagadori. Nor was it intended to have.

You can see real Japanese fowl in this video that was a gift to Toni-Marie from Mr. Stromberg some years ago. Japanese fowl are quite interesting. Several of the breeds there of various polymorphisms that differ from breeds we are familiar with in the west.